Derbyshire earned their first LV County Championship victory since April by skittling Gloucestershire for just 70 to bring an end to an incredible match shortly before tea on the second day.
After 24 wickets fell on the opening day at Bristol, the visitors - dismissed for 44 first time around - resumed their second innings on 127-4, an overall lead of 12.
Chesney Hughes, on 47 overnight, advanced to the first half-century of the match and went on to finish unbeaten on 96 as Derbyshire were all out for 236, home seamer Anthony Ireland picking up 4-59.
Set a target of 125 shortly after lunch, Gloucestershire collapsed to a spectacular defeat before the end of the session.
Derbyshire seamers Tim Groenewald (4-22) and Graham Wagg (3-31) led the way, sharing seven wickets in an innings lasting just 24.3 overs.
Number three Hamish Marshall provided more than half Gloucestershire's runs but was ninth out for 44. Jonathan Clare (2-7) bowled last man Ireland (11) to complete Derbyshire's 54-run success.
Despite the contest lasting less than five sessions, the ECB had already cleared the pitch of blame folllowing inspector John Jameson's visit on day one.
Derbyshire took 19 points from their astonishing comeback, while Gloucestershire's three deals a blow to their promotion hopes.
James Franklin took career-best figures of seven for 14 as Derbyshire were bowled out for just 44 on a day in which 24 wickets fell at Bristol.
The visitors survived for only an hour and a quarter against the swinging ball on a greenish pitch, as Franklin took five wickets in his first three overs without conceding a run.
That was just the start of two crazy sessions in the Division Two clash, which saw Gloucestershire dismissed for 156 in reply, Steffan Jones claiming four for 26, and ECB pitch inspector John Jameson summoned from Birmingham.
But by the time Jameson arrived batting conditions had improved. He left satisfied nothing was untoward after speaking to the umpires and Derbyshire closed on 127 for four in their second innings, leading by 15.
Derbyshire were nine for six at one point in their first innings, having been invited to bat under a cloudless sky. Franklin removed Chris Rogers, Chesney Hughes, Greg Smith, Wes Durston and Jonathan Clare in an amazing burst from the Ashley Down Road End.
Bowling full and swinging the ball, the New Zealander looked to have virtually won the game in the first 25 minutes, gaining three lbw decisions and two catches. He added the wickets of former Gloucestershire player Steve Adshead and Graham Wagg before being taken off after six action-packed overs.
Robin Peterson top scored with 15 as the visitors were blown away for their lowest score since 1975.
Batting looked no easier for the home side as they slumped to 30 for four in reply, Wagg claiming two of the wickets. They recovered to 132 for five, but then imploded to the bowling of Steffan Jones, who took four wickets in five balls bowling from the Pavilion End.
Second time around Derbyshire openers Rogers and Madsen took the score to 58 but four more wickets fell before the close, leaving Gloucestershire favourites to complete victory inside two days.