Hampshire's decision to try and chase a target of 411 against Gloucestershire backfired as they were bowled out for 212 to lose inside three days.
Will Gidman claimed 4-46 and new-ball partner James Fuller weighed in with 3-54 as Gloucestershire dismissed their opponents in 62.1 overs to earn their second LV= County Championship win of the season.
The visitors had resumed on Friday morning on 347-7 in their first innings and reached 410-9 by the time skipper Michael Klinger decided to declare.
Fuller and Craig Miles, both victims of Dimitri Mascarenhas (4-61), were the two wickets to fall but young wicketkeeper Gareth Roderick made 45 not out.
Klinger and Hampshire counterpart Jimmy Adams then agreed to forfeit an innings apiece in a contest that had seen the opening day washed out, leaving the hosts just over five sessions to reach such a sizeable target.
Their hopes were quickly hit by the loss of Adams for a fourth duck in five first-class innings in the second over and although Liam Dawson and Michael Carberry added 63, they then slipped to 74-5.
Sean Ervine was caught at the wicket off Miles to leave the score at 88-6 before Sohail Tanvir and Adam Wheater put together a stand of 48 for the seventh wicket to hold up Gloucestershire.
Wheater hit eight boundaries in his knock of 38 and Pakistan paceman Sohail, making his debut for the county, produced a flurry of fours in his 37, though it was all a matter of delaying the inevitable.
Mascarenhas launched Gidman for six on his way to his side's top score of 41 before becoming the last wicket to fall when attempting a big hit off Fuller.