A career-best 152 not out by Gloucestershire wicketkeeper Gareth Roderick ruined Kent's hopes of securing a three-day LV= County Championship Division Two win at Canterbury.
Roderick's fine knock, which spanned over five hours, meant the visitors reached the close of play on 307-9, another 91 runs short of their victory target but with just one wicket in hand.
Not even claiming the extra half-hour could help Kent secure just their second win of the season after the two captains had come to an agreement over setting up a final-innings run chase.
Gloucestershire declared on their overnight score of 80 without loss and with Kent then forfeiting their second innings, it left Michael Klinger's side requiring 399 to record their fourth Championship victory of the summer.
They didn't get off to the best of starts when captain Klinger departed for seven, while Benny Howell, promoted to bat at number three, went without scoring after spooning a low catch to Sam Northeast at cover.
Opener Chris Dent (four) also went early to leave the score at 13-3. Hamish Marshall briefly helped steady the ship, only to edge a leg-glance against Mitch Claydon through to wicketkeeper Geraint Jones to depart for 15.
Alex Gidman and Gareth Roderick added 55 in 14 overs either side of lunch until the former, on 47, edged a delivery to first slip to give Calum Haggett a deserved second scalp.
Will Gidman (13) also departed, but Tom Smith and Roderick - who made his maiden Championship ton from 157 deliveries - held up Kent's push with a seventh-wicket stand worth 109 in 33.3 overs.
Smith succumbed to the fourth delivery bowled with the second new ball for 32 to Charlie Shreck, who also removed David Payne in similar fashion to leave the score at 257-8.
James Tredwell turned one through the gate of Craig Miles (22) to peg back off-stump and leave Kent on the brink. Last-man Liam Norwell, however, survived 12 deliveries to keep Roderick company through to stumps.