Nathan Lyon led an Australia fightback after Virat Kohli struck his 25th Test ton as the hosts carved out a 175-run lead over India on an eventful day three of the second Test in Perth.
Lyon (5-67) completed his second five-wicket haul of the series as India - 1-0 up after a 31-run win in the first Test in Adelaide last week - tumbled from 223-4 to 283 all out to trail by 43 on first innings.
Australia lost Aaron Finch (25) retired hurt to a finger injury after he was struck by a blistering ball from Mohammed Shami but Usman Khawaja (41no) lifted Tim Paine's team to 132-4 by stumps in an evenly-poised Test.
Kohli (123) earlier became the second Indian, after Sachin Tendulkar, to score six Test tons in Australia and the second-quickest, after Australia's Don Bradman, to 25 Test hundreds - the India skipper achieving the feat in his 127th innings compared to Bradman's record of 68.
However, Kohli was then contentiously given caught-behind by Peter Handscomb at second slip off Pat Cummins, with third umpire Nigel Llong not having sufficient evidence to overturn the on-field decision despite some angles suggesting the ball may have bounced in front of Handscomb.
Lyon bagged his first wicket of the Test when he had Ajinkya Rahane (51) caught behind by Paine in Sunday's opening over, ending a 91-run stand between Rahane and Kohli for the fourth wicket.
Kohli proceeded to put on 50 with Hanuma Vihari (20) for the fifth wicket, during which time he reached his century - his fifth in Tests in 2018 - from 214 balls with a straight-driven boundary off Mitchell Starc.
But when Vihari snicked Josh Hazlewood behind and Kohli then departed, India were polished off by Lyon, who claimed the final four wickets to fall, including Rishabh Pant for a typically enterprising 36.
Australia then had to brave some hostile India bowling, with Marcus Harris hit flush on the helmet by Jasprit Bumrah and Finch then retiring hurt, the latter's blow to his right index finger causing the umpires to call an early tea with the score on 33-0.
Australia slipped from 59-0 to 85-3 after the interval, with Harris (20) bowled shouldering arms to Bumrah, Shaun Marsh (5) edging Shami behind on the pull and Handscomb (13) pinned lbw by Ishant Sharma
Khawaja and Travis Head (19) then put on a partnership of 35, with Paine (8no) ushering Australia through to the close alongside Khawaja after Head was caught at third man off Shami (2-23).